Category Archives

5 Articles


BGP Neighbor States – IDLE – CONNECT – ACTIVE From this explanation we might understand that a BGP process remains in ACTIVE state is due to TRANSPORT ERROR means the BGP process is unable to initiate a TCP Connection to the Neighbor. Refer the below flow chart where it explains the FSM transitions of three states IDLE, CONNECT and ACTIVE. In real-time BGP never remain in an particular state other than ESTABLISHED. Actually it flaps between IDLE, CONNECT and ACTIVE. BGP Stuck in IDLE Input Events 1 & 13 causes the IDLE state remain in IDLE state. IE1 is BGP START event and IE13 is BGP Notification Received. Also IE 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 13 causes other BGP states to transit back to IDLE. So the possible reason for a BGP router remain in IDLE is mentioned below. BGP Stuck in ACTIVE Input Event 5 cause the ACTIVE state […]

 bgp bgp-fsm bgp-stuck-in-active bgp-stuck-in-idle 

BGP Message Types & FSM

In this tutorial we will discuss about different message types of BGP, BGP Peer Connection, BGP Finite State Machine. Before establishing BGP Peer Connection, two neighbor must perform TCP Three-Way-Handshake and open a connection to Port number 179. BGP is a Transport Layer Protocol, hence TCP provides fragmentation, acknowledgement, sequencing functions necessary for reliable connection. BGP Peer must be statically configured and a route must present in the routing table. All the BGP Messages are unicast over TCP Connection. BGP Uses five basic message. BGP Messages All BGP Messages have a common header and encapsulated into a TCP Fragment. Header consists of Marker, Length and Type of the BGP Messages. A Keepalive message is nothing but a BGP Header. Open Message consists of version number of bgp, autonomous system number of the originating router, hold time, bgp identifier and optional parameters for capabilities negotiation. A Update Message consists of withdrawn […]

 bgp-fsm bgp-input-events bgp-message-types bgp-stuck-in-active 

BGP Path Selection Algorithm

In this discussion we will dive into the BGP Path Selection Algorithm. There are 3 (Rejection, Selection, Tie-Break) rounds of BGP Path Selection which involve 18 different steps. The first round is Rejection where any route matching certain condition will be rejected. The second Round is Selection where BGP Best Path Compiler will choose a path matching certain conditions. The last round is Tie-Break where the BGP Best Path Compiler will make the final decision based on certain criteria. Rejection Round Any roues matching the following conditions will be rejected by default. The above behavior can be changed with explicit configuration. We will discuss each with an example in another tutorial. Selection Round In this steps one route will be preferred over another in case it fulfill the any of the below conditions which include certain Path Attributes and other constraints. You can further remember the steps with the following […]

 bgp-pa bgp-path-attribute bgp-path-selection path-attribute 

Selection of iBGP & EBGP Paths

In a situation where a route coming from both ebgp and ibgp peer, the best path election will takes place in two different way. If the rote is locally originated then it will prefer ibgp path, otherwise it will chose ebgp path.

 BGP Distance bgp-path-selection iBGP over EBGP prefer iBGP over EBGP 

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